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发布时间:2019-09-10浏览次数:

STUDIES serve for delight, for ornament, and for ability. Their chief use for delight, is in privateness and retiring; for ornament, is in discourse; and for ability, is in the judgment, and disposition of business. For expert men can exe-cute, and perhaps judge of particulars, one by one; but the general counsels, and the plots and marshalling of affairs, come best, from those that are learned. To spend too much time in studies is sloth; to use them too much for ornament, is affectation; to make judgment wholly by their rules, is the humor of a scholar. They perfect nature, and are perfected by experience: for natural abilities are like natural plants, that need proyning, by study; and studies themselves, do give forth directions too much at large, except they be bounded in by experience. Crafty men contemn studies, simple men admire them, and wise men use them; for they teach not their own use; but that is a wisdom without them, and above them, won by observation. Read not to contradict and confute; nor to believe and take for granted; nor to find talk and discourse; but to weigh and consider. Some books are to be tasted, others to be swallowed, and some few to be chewed and digested; that is, some books are to be read only in parts; others to be read, but not curiously; and some few to be read wholly, and with diligence and attention. Some books also may be read by deputy, and extracts made of them bothers; but that would be only in the less important arguments, and the meaner sort of books, else distilled books are like common distilled waters, flashy things.

Reading make a full man; conference a ready man; and writing an exact man. And therefore, if a man write little, he had need have a great memory; if he confer little, he had need have a psent wit: and if he read little, he had need have much cunning, to seem to know, that he doth not. Histories make men wise; poets witty; the mathematics subtitle; natural philosophy deep; moral grave; logic and rhetoric able to contend. Abeunt studia in mores. Nay, there is no stand or impediment in the wit, but may be wrought out by fit studies; like as diseases of the body, may have appropriate exercises. Bowling is good for the stone and reins; shooting for the lungs and breast; gentle walking for the stomach; riding for the head; and the like. So if a man's wit be wandering, let him study the mathematics; for in demonstrations, if his wit be called away never so little, he must begin again. If his wit be not apt to distinguish or find differences, let him study the Schoolmen; for they are cymini sectors. If he be not apt to beat over matters, and to call up one thing to prove and illustrate another, let him study the lawyers' cases. So every defect of the mind, may have a special receipt.

谈读书

读书之用有三:一为怡神旷心,二为增趣添雅,三为长才益智。

怡神旷心最见于蛰伏幽居,增趣添雅最见于高谈雄辩,而长才益智则最见于处事辨理。虽说有经验才能就一事一理进行处置或分辨,但若要通观全局并运筹帷幄,则还是博览群书者能胜任。

读书费时太多者皆因懒散,寻章摘句过甚者显矫揉造作,全凭书中教条断事者则乃学究书痴。天资之改善须靠读书,而学识之完美须靠实践;因天生资质犹如自然花木,需要用学识对其加以修剪,而书中所示则往往漫无边际,必须用经验和阅历界定其经纬。

讲究实际者鄙薄读书,头脑简单者仰慕读书,惟英明睿智者运用读书,这并非由于书不示人其用法,而是因为其用法乃一种在书之外并高于书本的智慧,只有靠观察方可得之。

读书不可存心吹毛求疵,不可尽信书中之论,亦不可为己言掠辞夺句,而应该斟酌推敲,钩深致远。

有些书可浅尝辄止,有些书可囫囵吞枣,但有少量书则须细细咀嚼,慢慢消化;换言之,有些书可只读其章节,有些书可大致浏览,有少量书则须通篇细读并认真领悟。有些书还可以请人代阅,只取代阅人所作摘录节要;但此法只适用于次要和无关紧要的书,因浓缩之收如蒸馏之水淡而无味。

读书可使人充实,讨论可使人敏锐,笔记可使人严谨;故不常作笔记者须有过目不忘之记忆,不常讨论者须有通权达变之天资,而不读书者则须有狡诈诡谲之伎俩,方可显其无知为卓有见识。

读史使人明智,读诗使人灵透,数学使人精细,物理使人深沉,伦理使人庄重,逻辑修辞使人善辩,正如古人所云:学皆成性;不仅如此,连心智上的各种障碍都可以读适当之书而令其开豁。

文:储海林